1970 marked the seventh return of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference, now affiliated with the National Academy of Sciences through the Division of Engineering, National Research Council, to Boulder, Colorado. Local arrangements for this year's meeting have again been capably handled by the University of Colorado and the Cryogenics Division, NBS Institute for Basic Standards. The Cryogenic Engineering Conference Committee gratefully acknowledges the assistance of these two organizations, and particularly the Bureau of Continuation Education of the University of Colorado, for serving as hosts to the 1970 Cryogenic Engineering Conference. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, honorary organization of more than 700 scientists and engineers elected on the basis of outstanding con- tributions to knowledge. Established by a Congressional Act of Incorporation signed by Abraham Lincoln on March 3, 1863, and supported by private and public funds, the Academy works to further science and its use for the general welfare by bringing together the most qualified individuals to deal with scientific and tech- nological problems of broad significance. Under the terms of its Congressional charter, the Academy is also called upon to act as an official-yet independent- adviser to the Federal Government in any matter of science and technology. This provision accounts for the close ties that have always existed between the Academy and the Government, although the Academy is not a governmental agency and its activities are not limited to those on behalf of the Government.
By popular request, the National Bureau of Standards was again a host to a conference on cryogenic engineering on August 19-21, 1957. Similar meetings were held here in 1954 and 1956. The acceptance of over forty papers for this conference was certainly a sign of the increasing activity and interest in this engineering field. There seems little doubt that it will continue to grow, justifying the need for annual meetings. To make the Proceedings more interesting an attempt was made to include as much as possible of the general discussion which followed each paper. To obtain individual reprints of anyone particular paper, please contact the authors directly. 1957 CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING CONFERENCE COMMITTEE B. W. Birmingham National Bureau of Standards S. C. Collins Massachusetts Institute of Technology E. F. Hammel Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory R. B. Scott National Bureau of Standards K. D. Timmerhaus University of Colorado W. T. Ziegler Georgia Institute of Technology i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The 1957 Cryogenic Engineering Conference Committee gratefully acknowledges the continued support and interest of the following organizations who have made the 1957 Cryogenic Engineering Conference and the publication of this Proceedings possible. L' Air Liquide Air Products, Inc. Allison Division, General Motor s American Messer Corporation Aro Equipment Corporation Beech Aircraft Corporation Bell Aircraft Boeing Airplane Company Cambridge Corporation Convair Curtiss-Wright Corporation Garrett Corporation General Electric Company Herrick L. Johnston, Inc. Hofman Laboratories Linde Company A. D. Little, Inc.
1971 marked the first year since 1956 that the annual Cryogenic Engineering Conference was not held. Instead, the Cryogenic Engineering Conference gave its full support to the XIII International Congress of Refrigeration by working with Commissions I and II of the International Institute of Refrigeration to organize the cryogenic sessions for these two commissions. All of the papers presented at the International Congress of Refrigeration will be published by the IIR as part of the proceedings of that meeting. Even though no Cryogenic Engineering Conference was held in 1971, it became quite evident to the Conference Board that there were sufficient advances in cryogenic engineering to warrant the publication of Volume 17 of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering. Volume 17 presents the advances in this important field by bringing together in one volume some of the significant papers that have been presented at various technical meetings across the country during the latter half of 1970 and the first part of 1971. In addition, several authoritative review papers have been prepared by invitation of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference Board.
The National Bureau of Standards Boulder Laboratories was on September 5-7, 1956 again host to a national conference on cryogenic engineering. Supported financially by many of the leading industrial firms currently active in this rapidly expanding field, the conference, second of its kind, attracted more than 400 scientists and engineers from all parts of the world. This attendance was evidence of the present interest and growth in cryogenic engineering, a field which has as yet not found a satisfactory place within the bounds of existing professional societies. In all but two cases the Proceedings contain the summary or entire text of the paper presented at the confer- ence. Forty-nine papers were presented at seven separate sessions. These sessions were divided into the following general topics: Cryogenic Processes Cryogenic Equipment Cryogenic Properties Cryogenic Applications Bubble Chambers The division in some cases had to be somewhat arbitrary since several papers could have been classified under more than one general topic. To make the Proceedings more valuable to the reader, an attempt was made to record the general discussion which followed each paper. Unfortunately, however, the recording devices were not sensitive enough for clear reproduction. The discussions, therefore, have not been included in the Proceed- ings.
More than sixty years have elapsed since Linde first liquefied air on a commercial scale and prepared the way for separating of other gaseous mixtures. His work, however, was not of an isolated nature. It was conceived eighteen years after air had, for the first time, been liquefied in the laboratory by Pictet in Geneva and Caillete in Paris. Linde's liquefaction of air was followed by Dewar's work on hydrogen liquefaction in London and by the setting up at Leiden of Kamerlingh Onnes's famous low temperature laboratory. These advances in low temperature or cryogenic technology have resulted in the establishment of a completely new and thriving industry. Cryogenic engineering is concerned with developing and improving low temperature processes, techniques, and equipment; determining the physical properties of structural and related materials used in producing, maintaining, and using low temperatures; and the practical application of low temperature techniques and processes. These low tempera- tures are below those usually encountered in refrigerating engineering. It is rather difficult to assign a definite temperature which serves to divide refrigerating engineering from cryogenic engineering. A temperature below _lSOoC, however, is generally associated with cryogenic engineering.
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